Muhammad Razi

Razi, ‘Abd Allah Hamadani (1894-1955), son of Ibrahim. A historiographer, journalist, and poet born in Hamadan. He departed for India and later for Paris to further his studies. Having received his BA in law in Paris, he settled in Egypt where he published the periodicals the Rastakhiz, the Sudmand, and the ‘Asr-i Pahlawi. He also contributed to the Habl al-Matin, the Iranshahr, and the Farhangistan. Having returned to Iran, he published the journal Sudmand and the newspaper Sharq which were banned before long. He pursued his political activities by contributing to Persian newspapers appearing abroad. He later taught the history of Iran and wrote a 1,000 page historical book entitled Az Mad ta Pahlawi (‘From the Medes to the Pahlavis’). Razi was an outstanding lawyer and rendered many services to the Iranian history and culture. He established the newspaper Azadi-yi Sharq in 1945 wherein he attacked the corrupt elements. His works include Tarikh-i Iran az Azmina-yi Bastani ta Shal-i 1316 (‘History of Iran from Ancient Times to the Year 1937); Tarikh-i Mukhtasar-i Iran (‘Brief History of Iran’); Tarikh-i Mufassal-i Iran (‘Detailed History of Iran’); Mutammim-i Tarikh-i Iran az Jahandari-yi Sasaniyan ta Zaman-i Hazir (‘Supplement to the History of Iran from the Sassanid Empire to Modern Times’); A’in-i Zardusht (‘The Religion of Zoroaster’); Akhundnama (‘The Book of Mullas’).

Farhang-i A’lam-i Sukhan (2, 770); Farhang-i Sha’iran-i Zaban-i Parsi az Aghaz ta Imruz (1, 219-220). 



‘Abd al-Wahhab Mudhahhib-bashi Shirazi (b. 1872), poet, illuminator, and pen-case maker. A skilful artist from Shiraz, he was awarded by Nasir al-Din Shah the title Chief Illuminator (Mudhahhib-bashi). He had mastery in all the techniques of gold sprinkling, illumination, foliage, sprinling, and colourful enamelling of chapter headings. He was also skilful in water-color, pencase making, and biding, possessing dexterity in painting flower and bird and other motifs. His works include an elegant pen-case reflecting different techniques of gold-tooling with flower and bird motifs at the center and an inscription in the margins reading Ya Wahhab 1271 (O All-Bestower 1854); the illumination and ornamentation of a Qur’an manuscript copy copied by Mir ‘Ali Katib Shirazi bearing the colophone: Qad faraqa min tadhhib al-Qur’an … ‘Abd al-Wahhab 1277 (‘Completed illuminating the Qur’an … ‘Abd al-Wahhab 1860’); a Qur’an copy biding with abundant illumination and clove motifs in the margins, arabesque motifs, and the colophone Dhahhabahu ‘l-‘Abd al-Mudhannib ‘Abd al-Wahhab 1282 (‘Illuminated by the sinful servant [of God], ‘Abd al-Wahhab 1865’); a pen-case decorated by different arabesque motifs with illumination and colored ornamentation, with a colourful bouquet in fine pen at the center of the cover and the inscription Ya Wahhab 1289 (‘O All-Bestower 1872) in the margins.

Ahwal wa Athar-i Naqqashan (1, 351-352); Gulistan-i Hunar (lii); Hunar-i Qlamdan (134).