The Golha Orchestra
The first Golha orchestra was form by the performance of a number of well-known instrumentalists, including Murtaza Mahjubi, Abulhasan Saba, 'Ali Tajvidi, Mahdi Khalidi, Muhammad Shirkhuda'i, Husayn Hamadaniyan, and Salim Farzan, whose name were announced in the opening of the programs. Following the development of the Golha programs, young and talent musicians also performed at the Golha orchestra. Youner instrumentalists included Parviz Yahaqqi and Humayun Khurram and earlier ones included Mahmud Tajbakhsh. Reza Varzandeh and Amir Nasir Iftitah were also among the instrumentalists performing at the Golha orchestra. Later on, eminent instrumentalists from the National Conservatory directed by Ruhullah Khaliqi also joined the Golha orchestra. Later on, prominent musicians from the National Conservatory under the directorship of Ruhullah Khaliqi also joined the orchestra. These musicians included Nasrullah Zarrinpanjeh, the tar instrumentalist from amongst the masters, and 'Alireza Izadi Shirazi, the cello instrumentalist, from amongst the younger musicians. The main sound of the Golha orchestra, in which bow stringed instruments (violins), tar, tumbak, clarinet, and flute played the main role, formed approximately in the years 1957-1958. Santur was replaced by the piano in time and the ney gradually entered the orchestral sound. Re-orchestration of the Golha into two orchestras was the fruit of Khaliqi's efforts who aimed at the performance of some of the compositions of his master, 'Alinaqi Vazir in the most glorious form ever possible and he succeeded in the fulfillment his aims. The Golha orchestra was re-organized after 1961 by employing a number of the National Conservatory graduates, e.g. Fereydun Shahbaziyan, Hasan Yusufzamani, and Rahmatullah Badi'i, and making use of the services of some foreign musicians in harmonic departments and was able to function with greater power. The same orchestral composition was relatively preserved under the directorship of Javad Ma'rufi, the only difference being that under his directorship, the sound of the violin family predominated over other instruments and a four-part harmony was followed. The sound of the Golha orchestra under Khaliqi was more dynamic, richer in sound coloration, and beauteful roles were assigned to instruments and soloists. The sound of the Golha orchestra under Javad Ma'rufi enjoyed sound uniformity, loud stringed instruments, major piano accompaniment (Javad Ma'rufi's performance expertise), prominence of the vocal line of the orchestral sound. The sound of the orchestra matured with the passage of time and with its instrumentalists gaining further experience. Its maturity attained to its zenith in the years 1973-1978. The orchestra was dissolved by the director of the Radio and Television Organization after 1979 Revolution and solely its memory survived in the recordings of its programs.